Three million children under the age of 18 have some hearing loss including four out of every thousand newborns. So, every parent and caregiver should be watchful of the signs of hearing loss in his/her child and seek a professional diagnosis. Hearing loss can increase the risk of speech and language developmental delays.
- Mother had German measles, a viral infection or flu.
- Mother drank alcoholic beverages.
- Has one or more individuals with permanent or progressive hearing loss that was present or developed early in life.
Newborn (birth to 28 days of age)
- Weighed less than 3.5 pounds at birth.
- Has an unusual appearance of the face or ears.
- Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay for more than five days.
- Received an IV antibiotic
- History of meningitis.
- Failed newborn hearing screening test.
Infant (29 days to 2 years)
- Received an IV antibiotic
- Had meningitis.
- Has a neurological disorder.
- Had a severe injury with a fracture of the skull with or without bleeding from the ear.
- Has recurring ear infections with fluid in ears for more than three months.
RESPONSE TO THE ENVIRONMENT
(speech and language development)
Newborn (Birth to 6 Months)
- Does not startle, move, cry or react in any way to unexpected loud noises.
- Does not awaken to loud noises.
- Does not freely imitate sound.
- Cannot be soothed by voice alone.
- Does not turn his/her head in the direction of your voice
- Does not point to familiar persons or objects when asked
- Does not babble, or babbling has stopped.
- By 12 months does not understand simple phrases by listening alone, such as “wave bye-bye,” or “clap hands.”
Infant (6 months to 2 years)
- Does not accurately turn in the direction of a soft voice on the first call.
- Is not alert to environmental sounds.
- Does not respond on first call.
- Does not respond to sounds or does not locate where sound is coming from.
- Does not begin to imitate and use simple words for familiar people and things around the home.
- Does not sound like or use speech like other children of similar age.
- Does not listen to TV at a normal volume.
- Does not show consistent growth in the understanding and the use of words.
HEARING TESTS: HOW, WHEN, AND WHY
If you suspect that your child may have hearing loss, discuss it with your doctor. Children of any age can be professionally tested.
TESTS FOR NEWBORNS AND INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR
Hearing tests are painless, and they normally take less than half-an-hour.
Newborns are tested with either the otoacoustic emissions (OAE) test or the automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) test. During the OAE test, a microphone is placed in the baby’s ear. It sends soft clicking sounds, and a computer then records the inner ear’s response to the sounds. In the AABR test the child must wear earphones. Sensors are placed on his/her head to measure brain wave activity in response to the sound.
For infants over six months of age, the diagnostic auditory brainstem response and the visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) tests are commonly used. The diagnostic auditory brainstem response test is similar to the AABR test, but it provides more information. The VRA test presents a series of sounds through earphones. The child is asked to turn toward the sound, then he/she is rewarded with an entertaining visual image.
TESTS FOR OLDER CHILDREN AND ADULTS
Children between two and four years old are tested through conditioned play audiometry (CPA). The children are asked to perform a simple play activity, such as placing a ring on a peg, when they hear a sound. Older children and adults may be asked to press a button or raise their hand.
All children should have their hearing tested before they start school. This could reveal mild hearing losses that the parent or child cannot detect. Loss of hearing in one ear may also be determined in this way. Such a loss, although not obvious, may affect speech and language.
Hearing loss can even result from earwax or fluid in the ears. Many children with this type of temporary hearing loss can have their hearing restored through medical treatment or minor surgery.
In contrast to temporary hearing loss, some children are born with permanent hearing loss. Most of these children have some usable hearing. Few are totally deaf. Early diagnosis, early fitting of hearing aids, and an early start on special educational programs can help maximize the child’s existing hearing.
WHAT YOU SHOULD DO
If you have checked one or more of the risk factors in the lists above, your child might have hearing loss and you should take him or her for an ear examination and a hearing test. This can be done at any age, as early as just after birth.
HEARING AIDS FOR CHILDREN
For children, the device generally consists of two parts: the hearing aid and the ear mold. The hearing aid contains all of the electronic parts (i.e. the microphone, amplifier, receiver, battery compartment). It generally has an earhook attached, which sits over the top of the ear and the hearing aid sits behind the ear. The ear mold is a soft, silicone material that is custom made to fit the child’s ear. The ear mold has a hollow tube that connects to the earhook on the hearing aid and runs through the ear mold. This tube allows the amplified sound from the hearing aid to enter the child’s ear.
The hearing aid should be programmed by an audiologist. The goal is to ensure that speech sounds are audible while maintaining comfort for loud sounds. The gain or volume of the hearing aid is set based on pediatric prescriptive targets specifically for the child’s degree of hearing loss.
A child’s ear is smaller than an adult ear. Sound coming from a hearing aid will be louder in a child’s ear than in an adult ear because sound is naturally louder in small spaces than in large spaces. Therefore, it’s necessary to take measurements of the child’s ear in order to know how much sound is going to be present in the child’s ear. This is done by placing a small microphone in the child’s ear, which will measure the sound pressure level within the ear. These measurements are then entered into the hearing aid software to ensure that amplified sounds are audible, comfortable, and tolerable based on the child’s individual hearing loss.
After the hearing aid fitting, your child should have routine follow-up appointments with the audiologist (about every 6 months, or more for infants). Routine follow-ups ensure that the hearing aids are functioning properly and the custom ear molds fit properly.